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Pharmacogenetics of adverse reactions to antiepileptic drugs

Fricke-Galindo I1, Jung-Cook H2, LLerena A3, López-López M4.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major public health concern and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. In the case of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), ADRs constitute a barrier to successful treatment since they decrease treatment adherence and impact patients’ quality of life of patients. Pharmacogenetics aims to identify genetic polymorphisms associated with drug safety. This article presents a review of genes coding for drug metabolising enzymes and drug transporters, and HLA system genes that have been linked to AED-induced ADRs.

DEVELOPMENT:

To date, several genetic variations associated with drug safety have been reported: CYP2C9*2 and *3 alleles, which code for enzymes with decreased activity, have been linked to phenytoin (PHT)-induced neurotoxicity; GSTM1 null alleles with hepatotoxicity induced by carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproic acid (VPA); EPHX1 polymorphisms with teratogenesis; ABCC2 genetic variations with CBZ- and VPA-induced neurological ADRs; and HLA alleles (e.g. HLA-B*15:02, -A*31:01, -B*15:11, -C*08:01) with cutaneous ADRs.

CONCLUSIONS:

Published findings show that there are ADRs with a pharmacogenetic basis and a high interethnic variability, which indicates a need for future studies in different populations to gather more useful results for larger number of patients. The search for biomarkers that would allow predicting ADRs to AEDs could improve pharmacotherapy for epilepsy.
Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

ABCC2; Adverse drug reactions; Antiepileptic drugs; Antígeno leucocitario humano (HLA); CYP2C9; Farmacogenética; Fármacos antiepilépticos; Human leukocyte antigen (HLA); Pharmacogenetics; Reacciones adversas a medicamentos
Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2015 May 6;166(4):280-286. [Epub ahead of print]

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