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Early Activation of Th2/Th22 Inflammatory and Pruritogenic Pathways in Acute Canine Atopic Dermatitis Skin Lesions

Thierry Olivry, David Mayhew, Judy S. Paps, Keith E. Linder, Carlos PeredocorrespondencePress enter key for correspondence informationemailPress, Deepak Rajpal, Hans Hofland7, Javier Cote-Sierra8
7Current Address: Dermira, Menlo Park, California, USA
8Current Address: Pfizer, External R&D Innovation, Inflammation & Immunology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA

Determining inflammation and itch pathway activation in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) is fraught with the inability to precisely assess the age of skin lesions, thus affecting the analysis of time-dependent mediators. To characterize inflammatory events occurring during early experimental acute AD lesions, biopsy samples were collected 6, 24, and 48 hours after epicutaneous application of Dermatophagoides farinae house dust mites to sensitized atopic dogs. The skin transcriptome was assessed using a dog-specific microarray and quantitative PCR. Acute canine AD skin lesions had a significant up-regulation of genes encoding T helper (Th) 2 (e.g., IL4, IL5, IL13, IL31, and IL33), Th9 (IL9), and Th22 (IL22) cytokines as well as Th2-promoting chemokines such as CCL5 and CCL17. Proinflammatory (e.g., IL6, LTB, and IL18) cytokines were also up-regulated. Other known pruritogenic pathways were also activated: there was significant up-regulation of genes encoding proteases cathepsin S (CTSS), mast cell chymase (CMA1), tryptase (TPS1) and mastin, neuromedin-B (NMB), nerve growth factor (NGF), and leukotriene-synthesis enzymes (ALOX5, ALOX5AP, and LTA4H). Experimental acute canine house dust mite-induced AD lesions exhibit an activation of innate and adaptive immune responses and pruritogenic pathways similar to those seen in humans with acute AD, thereby validating this model to test innovative therapeutics modalities for this disease.

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